Projekty badawcze





Wyświetleń 81 do 90 (155 Razem)

ICT and Trade Performances of Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Micro and Macro Data

UMO-2016/23/N/HS4/03655 - PRELUDIUM

Kierownik: Akhvlediani Tinatin, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2017-10-09, Koniec: 2020-10-08
Wartość projektu: 88 660,00 PLN

ICT and Trade Performances of Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Micro and Macro Data

UMO-2016/23/N/HS4/03655 - PRELUDIUM

In the recent century, information technology revolution and the Internet together with the fast pace of globalization gave birth to digital economy that created new opportunities to produce, deliver, trade and consume goods and services all over the world...


The role of ecosystem services provided by trees in urban planning and management

UMO-2016/23/N/HS4/03674 - PRELUDIUM

Kierownik: Szkop Zbigniew, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2017-09-14, Koniec: 2020-09-13
Wartość projektu: 43 900,00 PLN

The role of ecosystem services provided by trees in urban planning and management

UMO-2016/23/N/HS4/03674 - PRELUDIUM

This research project addresses the problem of valuing ecosystem services provided by urban trees, that is a part of a broader issue in ecological economics: the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space.

In particular, the research will examine the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban trees to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. The goal is to quantify regulating services provided by urban trees and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climatechange mitigation in the municipality of Warsaw, Poland. The project will address key economic and policy questions.

In order to develop specific policy recommendations, as a first step first -the i-Tree Eco tool will be adjusted and applied to quantifyin biophysical terms. To express the result in monetary terms, BenMAP tool will be applied. BenMAP is intended as a tool for estimating the health impacts, and associated economic values, associated with changes in ambient air pollution. It accomplishesthis by running health impact functions, which relate a change in the concentration of a pollutant with a change in the incidence of a health endpoint.

As a second step the Principal-Agent model will be created, and by that an analysis of optimal incentive contracts characterized by asymmetric information and externalities generated will be made. The study will focus on the joint provision of ecosystem services, which are a public good, by urban trees manager by a principal (high-level city officials thatare supposed to react to citizens' needs) and an agent ("urban green" administration). For concreteness, we will frame the model with the specific example of environmental policy targets for Warsaw in mind.

The following steps sketch the overall researchplan:

1. Collecting a detailed and comprehensive review of the current theoretical andempirical literature about valuating ecosystem services provided by urban trees;

2. i-Tree Eco modelling;

3. BenMAP modelling;

4. Elaborating on research results;

5. Principal-Agent model application;

6. Disseminating results through publications and conference presentations.

There are at least three reasons, why the research is so important to carry on:

Development of ecological economics: The project’s research will contribute to the development of ecological economics by providing adjusted model for valuating of ecosystem services provided by urban trees in the climate and social-economicconditions of central and Eastern Europe country.

Practical meaning of theresearch:

In the context of a rapidly urbanizing world, understanding complexity and managing humanenvironment interactions within urban areas is vital if we are to balance the interdependent social and ecological goals of sustainability.

Adjustment to UE regulations by an innovative way ofapplying Principal-Agent model:

In this research an analysis of optimal incentive contracts characterized by asymmetric information and externalities generated will be made. The study will focus on the joint provision of ecosystem services, which are a public good, by urban trees managed by a principal (high-level city officials that are supposed to react to citizens' needs) and an agent ("urban green" administration). For concreteness, we will frame the model with the specific example of environmental policy targets for Warsaw in mind.


Determinants of efficiency and quality of social assistance institutions in Poland

UMO-2015/19/D/HS4/01968 - SONATA

Kierownik: Modzelewski Piotr, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2016-06-28, Koniec: 2020-06-27
Wartość projektu: 139 956,00 PLN

Determinants of efficiency and quality of social assistance institutions in Poland

UMO-2015/19/D/HS4/01968 - SONATA

In an increasingly complex world, the provision of public services with a high level of quality is difficult. Public institutions do not have adequate human, material and financial resources to meet all the expectations of citizens. Both theoretically and practically new concepts emerged to provide public services, and special attention should be given to approach of relation network and cooperation between the public, NGO and the private sector. Especially clearly it is evident in the case of social services which supply sometimes poses a serious challenge set toward the local government. With regard to social welfare institutions, in particular the Social Welfare Centres, there is objection regarding the ineffectiveness, inefficiency of their operation, but also instrumental treatment of people in need of social assistance services. Sometimes the quality of services provided by the Centers for Social Welfare and behavior of staff providing those services tends to reverse a potential beneficiaries of social welfare institutions.

On the other hand omissions in the sphere of social assistance have significant spillover effects in the future and increase the cost of delivering aid. Therefore, it became reasonable to take this topic and studies aimed at verifying what are the factors influencing the efficiency and quality of delivery of social services. The main objective of the project is to identify the types of relationships and strength of the relationship between the efficiency of the functioning of social welfare institutions and the quality of services they provide and to investigate the impact of individual components of the efficiency and quality on the performance of social assistance institutions in Poland. Research on the effectiveness and quality of public service delivery are already well established in the literature (see. Modzelewski 2009, Opolski, Modzelewski 2004).

However, the literature does not approach, which examines the relationship between the various components of efficiency and quality. In these studies, there shall be no decomposition on the efficiency of the allocation of investment, scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency in parallel compiling these categories of technical quality, non-technical (functional) and social dimensions of quality. In this context, there were no well so far simultaneous studies of the impact of organizational effectiveness (within individual units of the social welfare system, and complex organizational structures and networks to provide services by many different institutions) to the above mentioned variables on the effectiveness of social assistance services. This study is the development of the concept presented in publications of the Author (see. Modzelewski 2009; Modzelewski, 2014; Opolski, Modzelewski 2004).


The institutional analysis of the local party officials strategies in the economy. The case of

UMO-2015/19/B/HS4/03233 - OPUS

Kierownik: Tymiński Maciej, Opiekun: Cichocka Agnieszka
Początek: 2016-06-27, Koniec: 2020-06-26
Wartość projektu: 231 840,00 PLN

The institutional analysis of the local party officials strategies in the economy. The case of

UMO-2015/19/B/HS4/03233 - OPUS

Our project is one of the first attempts in Poland which applies the new institutional economics in the studies of the management system in the centrally planned economy. In our researches of the local party officials’ activity in the economy we apply the model based on the positive agency theory. Using this approach we will analyze the archival materials of the voivodeship committees in Warsaw, Katowice and Lublin and the documents of economic administration – ministries and associations of enterprises.

The results of the project should lead to the better understanding of the evolution of economic system in the time of state socialism in Poland and its influence on the post-communist period. The changes caused by the institutional innovations and inflow of capital, as pointed political scientist and sociologists, promoted groups of interests related to the different branches and regions.

These changes had the impact on the transition process after 1989. Particularly, the phenomenon of nomenklatura privatization and the strong position of former party-state administration in the postcommunist economy is at least partially rooted in the process of institutional evolution of party and state administration that happened in 1970s.


Wealth inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

UMO-2017/25/B/HS4/01360 - OPUS

Początek: 2018-01-19, Koniec: 2020-04-18
Wartość projektu: 311 000,00 PLN

Wealth inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

UMO-2017/25/B/HS4/01360 - OPUS

The project aims at empirical measuring and explaining wealth inequality in post-socialist Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, which have become EU New Member States after 2004. In economic science, inequality has been usually measured in terms of disparities of income or consumption. Economists paid less attention to wealth inequality largely due to scarcity of reliable data on household wealth. Household wealth is usually measured as net worth, which is a difference between household (real and financial) assets and household debts. Scientific research shows that wealth is of prime importance as a determinant of individual economic well-being and its distribution in the society.

Parental wealth is positively associated with greater educational and cognitive results for children, transitions to home and business ownership, and children’s labor market outcomes. The fact that wealth is usually very unequally distributed (much more unequally than income) translates into very unequal opportunities for children and adolescents coming from different economic backgrounds. According to recent empirical research, wealth inequality is also negatively related to economic growth. Although there is extensive research on wealth inequality in rich countries, the problem has been much less studied in the context of CEE countries. The project can therefore fill an important gap in the economic literature. Specifically, the project will measure the degree of wealth inequality in CEE countries correcting for the problem of the missing data on wealth of the super-rich in household surveys. Such corrected estimates of wealth inequality for CEE countries do not exist yet. The project will provide first insights on the mechanisms that determine wealth inequality in the CEE countries.

The results of the project will help to understand how economic growth, business cycles and structural transformations from centrally planned to market economies have affected wealth of the richest persons, its distribution and mobility among the richest. New facts about wealth inequality and insights into mechanisms driving changes in wealth of the super-rich in CEE region will add to the stock of knowledge about wealth inequality in advanced countries. It will be interesting to see whether the economic processes determining wealth inequality and wealth of the super-rich in the CEE countries are similar to those operating in Western advanced economies. An additional objective of the proposed project is to throw a new light on the problem of income inequality in Poland. The existing substantial literature on income inequality in Poland, based on household survey data, suggests that the rise of inequality was rather limited during the transformation to market economy.

However, inequality estimates in this literature could be seriously biased downward due to the problem of missing top incomes in household survey data. New research based on tax returns data suggests that income inequality grew in Poland much more substantially. This project will provide new estimates of income inequality trends in Poland using combined household survey and tax returns data. In addition, the improved income inequality estimates will be used to compute inequality-corrected measures of real incomes and well-being. We will use these measures to reevaluate whether the Polish transition to market economy was successful in terms of raising overall societal well-being as well as the well-being of the poor and the rich in Poland.


Fragility of pension system and their reforms

UMO-2014/13/B/HS4/03264 - OPUS

Kierownik: Krzysztof Makarski, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2015-03-20, Koniec: 2020-03-19
Wartość projektu: 303 216,00 PLN

Fragility of pension system and their reforms

UMO-2014/13/B/HS4/03264 - OPUS

The objective of this project is to inquire the role that the time inconsistency of economic policy plays in determining the stability of pension system reforms (PSR). We aim to verify three main hypotheses. First, we propose that thestability of PSR is largely driven by the decision concerning the fiscal closure rule to the reform (H1). Second, we positivelyhypothesize that voters may abandon even welfare enhancing PSF due to time inconsistency of economic policy, makingthe reforms fragile (H2). Third, time inconsistency of the economic policy may affect welfare evaluation of PSR, thus yielding normative recommendation on whether PSR should be implemented at all (H3).

This project involves a sequence of theoretical extension to an OLG framework developed by Hagemejer, Makarski and Tyrowicz (2013). The original framework encompasses a reform of a pension system from a defined benefit pay-as-you-go system (DB PAYG) to a defined contribution (DC) one, with or without a capital prefunded pillar. Our earlier work shows that fiscal closures matter for the overall welfare effects of the reform, but we did not tackle explicitly the choice of fiscal policy and the linked political economy aspect. The extensions will go in three main steps, in response to the formulated hypotheses.

For H1: We have shown in previous research that although contemporaneous taxation is preferable to public debt in terms of welfare, the former allows more intergenerational redistribution, whereas the efficiency loss is small. We have not tested for other fiscal closures, e.g. reduction of contribution rates; adjustment in government expenditure, etc. they were not viable policy options in the case of Poland, but are often considered in other countries. Indeed, a meaningful inclusion of government expenditure structure in welfare modelling is currently at the frontierof innovation in DSGE modelling.For H2: Recent empirical evidence suggest that the social security reforms are reverted in some countries. We hypothesize that even if social security reform is welfare improving it can still be abandoned in the politicalprocess due to time inconsistency of economic policy. Rational agents, even if reform is individually welfare enhancing, may find it preferable to vote against it if the reforms is unstable. Usually, PSR involves short (or medium) term costs that are compensated with long term benefits. Therefore, due to time inconsistency, agents may vote to revert the reform before the cost of it mount. Additionally, within cohort heterogeneity (e.g. due to income, cost of voting, etc.) makes individual voting strategieseven more complex and its modelling more challenging. The benefits of abandoning the reform may also crucially depend on the selected fiscal closure. To the best of our knowledge, no such models exist: literature on political economy of PSR so far focused on viability rather than its stability.

For H3: Given the discussed above fragility of PSR due to time inconsistency, we ask whether it is optimal to introduce the reform. We want to see how the cost and benefits analysis of social security reform changes if one takes into account time inconsistency of economic policy. If there is uncertainty about PSR, individual adjustment in terms of labor supply and savings is likely to be different, thus altering the benefits of the PSR. The general equilibrium effects may create a vicious cycle, undermining further the stability of the PSR. Since savings and labor supply may respond incompletely to the incentives from PSR. Our goal is to evaluate how this uncertainty affects the welfare effects of PSR.

The major value added of this project lies in combining efforts from two strands of public economics literature welfare effects of fiscal policies with political economyof intergenerational redistribution. Both these fields are vital currently, given the fiscal tension and unavoidable aging in Europe and more broadly among industrialized countries.We intend to develop three research papers (one in response to each hypothesis), as well as extensively disseminate the results in international conferences and seminars in Poland. In our earlier work we have developed a series of five research articles (available currently as working papers), all of which are already submitted to international refereed journals. We also disseminated in a 11 international conferences, seminars in Poland. As means of dissemination we have developed a website where we share the outcomes of the research, a few non-technical summaries of our work and a constantly updated review of other papers in the field. We presented the conclusions from our research at Chancellery of the Prime Minister, National Bank of Poland, European Commission (DG Employment) and at the World Bank, in addition to numerous academic seminars and a few media appearances. We intend to continue so in the future.


Impact of population ageing on public finances in Poland

UMO-2016/21/D/HS4/00691 - SONATA

Początek: 2017-03-01, Koniec: 2020-02-28
Wartość projektu: 116 200,00 PLN

Impact of population ageing on public finances in Poland

UMO-2016/21/D/HS4/00691 - SONATA

The project refers to one of the most important population processes, which is population ageing.

Steady increase of percentage of old people in the population is the outcome of increase in the average life expectancy and also of a low fertility rate. Forecast by Eurostat show that until year 2060, in the European Union member countries percentage of people above 65 years old will be 30%, which is now 17% (from 14% to 35% in Poland). Increase in the proportion of older people is related to providing these individuals decent living conditions both in terms of health and financial security . This becomes a challenge for both families and for the state. With an ageing population the costs to the state budget are increasing.

These costs are related to pensions, as well as expenses associated with health care and long-term care . The aim of the project is to assess fiscal sustainability in Poland, taking into account the projected budgetary impact of population ageing. In this study, basing on the SHARE database, we will modify the underlying demographic assumptions, made in the European Commission’s Fiscal Sustainability Report 2015, concerning elderly people. In addition, using data on physical activity and health condition of elderly people, we will try to verify whether an increase in physical activity would lead to decrease in public expenditure on health care and long term care. The proposed project is of great significance for the fiscal policy and public finances. The results may indicate that the risks associated with unsustainability of public finances in Poland, caused by population ageing, are higher in longer term than it may be concluded from the latest European Commission’s Fiscal Sustainability Report.

On the other hand, the assessment of an impact of physical activity of elderly people on their health condition and the sensitivity of public expenditures on health care and long term care, depending on the physical activity, may indicate the importance of promoting physical activity among the older part of the society


Reliance on foreign banks in emerging European countries: consequences for credit volatility and the impact of fiscal imbalances

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00669 - OPUS

Początek: 2017-02-23, Koniec: 2020-02-22
Wartość projektu: 104 800,00 PLN

Reliance on foreign banks in emerging European countries: consequences for credit volatility and the impact of fiscal imbalances

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00669 - OPUS

Foreign banks play an important role in the financial markets of emerging European economies. They are important source of financing of private sector spending, including investment. However, they also extend credit to governments and hold public bonds...


Mechanisms of creating social capital - analysis on the basis of Polish empirical examples

UMO-2016/21/D/HS4/00705 - SONATA

Początek: 2017-02-08, Koniec: 2020-02-07
Wartość projektu: 97 200,00 PLN

Mechanisms of creating social capital - analysis on the basis of Polish empirical examples

UMO-2016/21/D/HS4/00705 - SONATA

The main research objective is to analyse microeconomic mechanisms of social capital formation. The study will cover different factors determining joining social networks and activity in them, inclination to trust others, reciprocity, and creation of collaborative attitudes. There is a focus on explaining how participation in social networks (including both active membership in organisations and taking part in more informal social networks) transfers into trust, norms of reciprocity and collaborative attitudes. Researchers of social capital, in order to explain its origins, often rely on the presumption, that participation in voluntary associations has positive external effects. They assume that by acting in organizations, people learn to cooperate and communicate, not only within one group, but in general.

However this rule is not generally applicable, because there are numerous empirical studies questioning it. If we are interested in social capital at the level of the whole community or country, and at the same time, we assume that it arises as a result of bottom-up interactions, we must try to understand the conditions under which investment in social capital at the micro level translates into its aggregation. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are going to be used.

There will be performer an analysis of data from Social Diagnosis, in order to investigate determinants of general trust and collaborative attitudes. Particular attention will be paid to participation in organisations and informal networks. However, in order to investigate the grassroots mechanisms associated with the formation of social capital, the analysis of secondary data is not sufficient. For this reason, it will be complemented by an in-depth case study of Polish and non-commercial, local exchange system and trading (LETS), based on social currency. As shown in the international literature, the creation of such a system may have beneficial socio-economic effects and contribute to building social capital in the local community. LETS allows, through the use of the internet platform, to extend the traditional neighbourly help to a wider group of people, and also contributes to the formation of social ties, especially if transactions include direct interpersonal interactions, and if they are accompanied by additional events strengthening the existence of the community.

This system allows users to access social resources existing in the neighbourhood and enables the development of entrepreneurship, and the use of own abilities and following own interests. This study will examine socio-economic mechanisms operating in the system and its impact on social capital. The main focus is to determine how interpersonal interactions within LETS may influence social norms and attitudes. It will utilise data obtained from the webbased platform, supporting the transactions and enabling to give recommendations. This data will be supplemented by information acquired from in-depth interviews and on-line survey


Parallel convergence of income and educational achievements on a regional and local level in Poland - analysis of distribution dynamics

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00670 - OPUS

Kierownik: Wójcik Piotr, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2017-02-03, Koniec: 2020-02-02
Wartość projektu: 160 800,00 PLN

Parallel convergence of income and educational achievements on a regional and local level in Poland - analysis of distribution dynamics

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00670 - OPUS

In the last decade Poland has achieved a significant improvement of economic development indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in Poland (taking into account the differences in prices of goods and services between countries) increased from 49% of European Union average in 2004 (a year of Polish accession into UE) to 67% in 2013 showing progress in each year.

Simultaneously the impressive progres was achieved by Polish secondary schools pupils, which is confirmed by international comparisons of educational results, namely Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) repeated every three years under OECD auspices. In mathematics literacy test Polish pupils climbed from 25. place in the world in 2000 into 13. place in the world in 2012.

In the reading test they started in 2000 from 25. place in the world, to achieve 10. place in 2012. In the science test the results improved from 22. place in 2000 to 9. place in 2012. As numerous analyses for income show, this impressive progress does not spread out proportionally on all regions. Education is widely recognized as one of the most important factors of economic growth. High level of education (or broader so called human capital) plays a major role in the success of countries and regions. Barriers in access to education are an important factor of economic and social exclusion.

However, what really matters for growth is not the level of human capital – measured for example by a share of population with secondary or higher education or the average number of schooling years, but its quality – measured for example by the average score on the final exams on particular education stages. The analyses of the relationship between convergence processes of income and educational achievements on a regional and local level and research on convergence of human capital or educational achievements on a regional and local level in Poland have not been yet performed.

The project will fill this scientific gap. The starting point of the research will be the review of the existing convergence concepts in order to seek for possibilities of their generalization to allow for verification of the parallel convergence. The analysis of paralel convergence applied within this project will relate to verification of the existence of a relationship between the convergence processes of income and educational achievements on a regional and local level. In the next step the methodology will be also applied to analyze the impact of Polish accession to European Union on the dynamics of convergence processes of the two aforementioned phenomena. Analyses will be conducted on the level of voivodeships, subregions, poviats and municipalities. The measure of income considered on the level of voivodeships and subregions will be per capita GPD, while on the level of poviats it will be proxied by the average monthly remuneration or per capita revenue in poviat budget from the share in receipts from personal income tax.

For municipalities income will be measured by the per capita revenue in municipality budget from the share in receipts from personal income tax. Educational achievements on all regional and local levels will be measured by the average results of primary school final exams, lower-secondary school leaving exams and upper-secondary school exit exams.

These exams provide detailed, standardized and comparable data on educational achievements of Polish schools pupils on all regional levels.


Wyświetleń 81 do 90 (155 Razem)