Projekty badawcze





Wyświetleń 51 do 60 (155 Razem)

Impact of tax and benefit changes on income diversification and financial motivation to work in the context of multi-year reforms: a micro-simulation approach to decomposition applied to experiences in Poland in 2005-2018

UMO-2018/29/B/HS4/00627 - OPUS

Kierownik: Morawski Leszek, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2019-02-21, Koniec: 2022-02-20
Wartość projektu: 237 572,00 PLN

Impact of tax and benefit changes on income diversification and financial motivation to work in the context of multi-year reforms: a micro-simulation approach to decomposition applied to experiences in Poland in 2005-2018

UMO-2018/29/B/HS4/00627 - OPUS

Tax  and  benefits  policy  is  important  in  shaping  both  the  distribution  of  disposable  income  and  in determining  people’s  decisions  on the labour  market.

Tax  and  benefit  instruments  operate  in constantly  changing  economic  environment  and  without  correct  measures  of  the  tax  and  benefit system  impact  on  income  distribution  and  labour  choices  it  is  impossible  to  conduct  the  efficient economic policy.Incorrect assessment of the tax and benefit policy effects would give us misleading conclusions  about  the  equity  and  efficiency  properties  of  the  economic  policy -one  of  the  central topic  in  economics  (Okun,  1975). How  strong  is itsimpact  on  income  redistribution,  income inequality  and  financial incentivesto  work  depends  on  pre-tax  income  distribution  and  population characteristics.

The  aim ofthe  project  is  to  identify  the  relative  effect  of  tax  and  benefit  reforms  on  changes  in financial incentives to work and on income inequality.By the relative policy effect we understand the size of the policy effect in relation to the size of other effects arising either from changes in wage distribution or in population characteristics


Macro-behavioral assessment of climate policies

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00647 - OPUS

Kierownik: Safarzyńska Karolina, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2017-02-09, Koniec: 2022-02-08
Wartość projektu: 302 600,00 PLN

Macro-behavioral assessment of climate policies

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00647 - OPUS

The project will provide climate assessment models with realistic behavioral foundations, by incorporating into existing models a variety of behavioral tendencies and biases. New models will be developed, which account for heterogeneity and bounded rationality of agents. So far, the analysis of climate policies relies on the model, which assumes that people act as perfect utility maximizers. Empiricalevidence shows that the model is an invalid description of how people actually behave. Many behavioral models have been proposed so far, which incorporate into economic theory a variety of realistic behaviors. Recently, such models have been increasingly used in macroeconomics. It has been shown that they can explain empirical macro phenomena beyond a rational-agent model. However, so far, behavioral-macro models have not been used for the assessment of climate policies. In this project, we will study how the estimates of the social cost of carbon (SCC) differ under a variety of behavioral assumptions, as well how behavioral tendencies may undermine the effectiveness of climate policies. For instance, the SCC is an estimate of the economic damages associated with a small increase in carbondioxide (CO2) emissions or it represents the value of damages avoided for a small emission reduction.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the EU Commission rely on the social cost of carbon (SCC) to estimate the benefits and costs of environmental policies. We will compare our findings to existingestimates, and evaluate when behavioral failures may undermine the effectiveness of climate policies.


Lottery play through the lens of behavioural economics

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00688 - OPUS

Kierownik: Krawczyk Michał, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2017-02-07, Koniec: 2022-02-06
Wartość projektu: 307 600,00 PLN

Lottery play through the lens of behavioural economics

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/00688 - OPUS

Why do people play lotteries? Given current pay-out rates, about half the money spent on coupons will on average be lost; only a handful of lucky ones out of millions of players will actually win the jackpot (and, as studies show, will probably not spend it wisely and within a few years will not be much happier than they were before winning anyway). Several potentially appealing explanations of lotteries’ surprising popularity have been put forward, but it is often difficult to put them to a proper test.

In this project we will try to conduct several experiments in the field, trying to verify various reasons for which people could perceive lotteries as more attractive than they really are. For example, we will let customers choose between coupons with randomly selected numbers and coupons with numbers could choose themselves. Observing the fraction that strictly prefer the latter, we will have a better understanding of how many customers (erroneously) believe that they are able to hand pick the numbers that will give them a better chance.

Another group of studies in this project will look at the advertisements. It is often claimed that marketing of lotteries is responsible for pushing people towards excessive play. We will conduct content analysis of the ads, aimed at identifying motives for and beliefs about playing that they try to capitalize upon. We will then link this classification with perceived persuasive potential of each clip or slogan. This will provide us with some ideas of which (mis)conceptions about lotteries may most effectively be utilized by marketers. We shall also investigate the manipulative techniques used by firms and individuals offering “systems” or “guides” to lottery play, allegedly helping become a millionaire.

Finally, we will look at actual sales data and conduct novel econometric analyses. For example, we will look at the games in which customers have a choice between a greater chance for a smaller amount and a smaller chance for a greater amount of money. Popularity of each of the options will provide us with evidence on the distribution of types of distortions in perception of low probabilities. The project will thus result in the progress of scientific inquiry in the gambling industry and decision making in risky situations in general. It will also result in development of a website aimed at the general public, with education materials debunking popular myths associated with lottery play, especially those often cleverly used by marketers and fraudsters.


Household economics in three-generation families. The role of intra-houshold altruism in the distribution of common resources for health care

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/01992 - OPUS

Kierownik: Bartczak Anna, Opiekun: Cichocka Agnieszka
Początek: 2017-02-06, Koniec: 2022-02-05
Wartość projektu: 297 000,00 PLN

Household economics in three-generation families. The role of intra-houshold altruism in the distribution of common resources for health care

UMO-2016/21/B/HS4/01992 - OPUS

Understanding intergenerational transfers within the family is a key factor for designing of effective policies on health and social care or education policy.While, the topic of resource allocation in a twogeneration household, i.e. consisting of parents and children, has been well established, surprisingly, the analysis of economic behavior in relation to the oldest generation (grandparents) has attracted limited attention so far.

Assuming the increasing life expectancy among European citizens the issue of transfers in three-generation households will gain in importance. An important class of empirical and theoretical studies shows that resource allocation between parents and children can be explained by altruistic behavior towards children in a two-generation framework. In this project, we are going to examine how the distribution of resources is affected by the inclusion of the thirdgeneration (the generation of grandparents) in households, where resources are mainly provided by middleaged working generation (parents). In particular, we will investigate if altruism, e.g. direct and indirect reciprocity, can explain the distribution of resources in the three generation framework.

Additionally, we are going to explore whether decisions regarding the distribution of resources in the three-generation households are less effective than those in the twogeneration households and under which conditions the needs of grandparents are being sacrificed to needs of the children.

The context of our study will be health care. In this project we are going to apply both: an experimental method, and a Choice Experiments (CE) non-market valuation method based on stated preferences. We plan to conduct two major surveys: an experimental survey in the Laboratory of Experimental Economics at the Faculty of Economic Sciences in the University of Warsaw and the CE on the nationwide sample carried out by the professional polling agency. In the experimental study, we would like to mimic the financial relationships between family members in three- and two-generation households and then to manipulate potentially relevant factors (such as e.g. income, individual or common decision taking) to see how this influence willingness to pay (WTP) for particular family members. The sample composition will allow us to analysis the differences in valuation between the three- and twogeneration households. The advantage of experimental study is that the choices made by individuals are not hypothetical. Subjects decisions have real financial consequences (the payment from the lab experiment). The advantage of the second study – the CE valuation study is possibility to estimate WTP for improving the health of individual household members, and estimate the marginal rate of substitution between the valuation of the health of the middle generation of the valuation of the health of their children and parents (the oldest generation). The Choice Experiment method is based on stated preferences.

The theoretical basis of this method is the characteristic demand theory by Lancaster, the random utility theory and the experimental design theory. In the project we will attempt to design a theoretical model on the resources allocation including intra-household altruism in the three-generation families.


Economics of compliance with constitutions

UMO-2016/23/G/HS4/04371 - BEETHOVEN

Początek: 2018-02-01, Koniec: 2022-01-31
Wartość projektu: 623 400,00 PLN

Economics of compliance with constitutions

UMO-2016/23/G/HS4/04371 - BEETHOVEN

In recent years economists have provided much evidence confirming the significance of constitutions operating in states for the functioning of their economies. The main link here is the role that constitutional provisions have for constraining the discretion of actors in power and for inducing them to make decisions aiming at long run pro-development goals and not short run goals of their own or of particular groups. However, this literature mainly found that it is the factual implementation of constitutions and not their formal wording (text) that matters. This leads to important questions, what causes the rise of discrepancies between constitution texts and constitutional reality (in other words, what can explain the so-called de jure – de facto constitutional gaps) and what the consequences of this phenomenon are. In the ECC project we undertake this topic, offering for the first time a comprehensive and systematic economic account of the constitutional compliance problem.

The research planned in the project develops in three main steps. Firstly, to allow for its measurement, the conceptualization of the de jure – de facto constitutional gap is inevitable. This encompasses answering questions such as: What are the relevant legal norms and who has to comply with them? Secondly, we undertake the challenge to indicate the determinants of the gap between de jure and de facto constitutions. These can be characteristics of the rules themselves, characteristics of the constitutional document, or country characteristics in terms of culture, politics and socio-economic conditions. Distinct sets of factors may play a role as determinants of different constitutional rules. Thirdly, we explain the consequences of the gap between de jure constitutional norms and their de facto implementation. We argue that the existence (and size) of such gaps is not only relevant for the effectiveness of these constitutional norms, but also e.g. for trust in government and public sector corruption.


How does multisensory virtual experience impact environmental behaviour?

UMO-2019/35/J/HS6/03166 - IDEALAB

Początek: 2020-08-01, Koniec: 2022-01-31
Wartość projektu: 812 500,00 PLN

How does multisensory virtual experience impact environmental behaviour?

UMO-2019/35/J/HS6/03166 - IDEALAB

Air pollution is a serious threat to public health. The main source of the problem are cars and heating habits. Using coal and trash for heating, as well as wood in a fireplace for pleasure, leads to exceeding quickly the daily norms of air pollution. Even though the harmfulness of air pollution and its relationships with our daily behaviour is commonly known, the problem persists. But what if we
could see, touch, and hear pollution? Would that encourage us to change our behaviour and improve our health? Our team, using virtual reality and cooperating with local communities, will
investigate how multisensory experience of air pollution influences the air quality in Poland and Norway.

The project aims to understand how multisensory virtual experience impacts real environmental behaviours. Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can reflect the real world but it can also
enrich it with elements exceeding reality. We can experience VR through both head mounted displays and ordinary smartphones. The latter also allow to experience virtual environments in the form of
augmented reality, where virtual elements are overlaid on the real world. For now, virtual environments provide mainly visual and auditory experience. Nevertheless, new multisensory
solutions and products are being developed and implemented. Air pollution can be detected by our bodies only when it reached dangerously high level. But polluted air is dangerous for us much before
we can smell and see it. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of multisensory air pollution experience on actual human behaviour. In our analyses, we will take into consideration also
economic and socio-cultural factors to understand better what influences the air quality in small Polish and Norwegian towns.

VAPE is a transdisciplinary project in which we link a multisensory experience in VR, real-time air pollution measurement, economic and psychological analysis, and civil engagement. We plant to build
a network of low-cost air quality sensors in selected cities in Poland and Norway. We will use the data recorded by us to build a multi-sensory virtual experience. We will observe how this VR experience will affect attitudes and readiness for pro-ecological behaviour among the residents of selected towns.
Moreover, we will involve local community and artists in creating these experiences. In laboratory experiments, we will test how multisensory virtual experience of air pollution affects us on a neuronal,
physiological, and behavioural level to further increase the effectiveness of our field operations.
Finally, we will use the economic theory of decision making and experimental economics to see how we can scale up the solution. 


Determinants of taxation of inheritance and donations in the model approach

UMO-2018/29/B/HS4/01021 - OPUS

Kierownik: Kudła Janusz, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2019-01-28, Koniec: 2022-01-27
Wartość projektu: 205 600,00 PLN

Determinants of taxation of inheritance and donations in the model approach

UMO-2018/29/B/HS4/01021 - OPUS

Contemporary social changes manifest in two counteracting effects: an increase in the long -time dependency of young people on their parents, and a rise in the number of people living alone.
Naturally, the two phenomena entail a shift in intergenerational transfers. The importance of the altruistic bequest motive (bequest from love)
is reduced in the favor of the exchange transfer motive (bequest for attention or care), due to the very fact that the bargaining power of
old generations is relatively increasing as they receive higher financial transfers and collect more assets than young generations, and
because both subpopulations incur the risk of financial scarcity when more individuals live on their own.
At the same time, any transfers between the generations decrease the importance of life -cycle models (LC) and put into consideration the applicability of models with (at least) partially shared consumption -like overlapping generation models (OLG).
These changes affect estate and gift taxation manifoldly, challenging several critical issues, namely:
1) What are determinants of estate and gift taxation (with regard to the tax base and the tax rate, as well as progressivity and avoidance of the tax)?
2) What are differences in predictions of LC and OLG models (esp. as far as the effects on savings and human capital creation are considered)?
3) What is the impact of taxation of gifts and estates on the creation of human capital?
4) What is the impact of estate and gift taxation on the relation between physical and human capital?


Import of international shocks to an open economy

UMO-2016/23/B/HS4/02357 - OPUS

Kierownik: Goczek Łukasz, Opiekun: Kaźmierczak Ewa
Początek: 2017-07-25, Koniec: 2022-01-24
Wartość projektu: 199 290,00 PLN

Import of international shocks to an open economy

UMO-2016/23/B/HS4/02357 - OPUS

The main objective of the research project is to identify on empirical grounds, the impact of external economic shocks for monetary policy in open economies.
The proposed research program involves a series of theoretical and empirical monetary policy analysis (including Polish) grouped into three interrelated groups. The Group I investigates a range of responses to capital flows; the Group II analyzes the extent of the reaction to changes in commodity prices (including energy), the Group III connects Group I and Group II with the analysis of an exchange rate corridor, beyond which a non-linear response of monetary policy occurs.
The proposed research attempts to complement the existing state of the art on monetary policy and financial stability. Thus, the investigation of monetary policy response to external shocks has fundamental consequences for the assessment of the effects of the inflation targeting strategy.
Possible confirmation of the main hypothesis would challenge the widely accepted view that before the financial crisis the sole aim of the monetary policy was to combat inflation. This would be particularly important when, despite the existing normative consensus assuming no reaction of the monetary authorities – in fact, such a reaction would have taken place.

The proposed studies also extend the knowledge on the post-crisis policies of central banks.
On this basis, main challenges facing the monetary policy will be indicated. The conclusions obtained from studies conducted in the proposed project will allow for a better understanding of the relationship between monetary policy and financial markets, and the actual functioning of the
inflation targeting strategy


Incentive compatibility in stated preference studies

UMO-2017/25/B/HS4/01076 - OPUS

Początek: 2018-01-19, Koniec: 2022-01-18
Wartość projektu: 443 200,00 PLN

Incentive compatibility in stated preference studies

UMO-2017/25/B/HS4/01076 - OPUS

The  proposed  project  will  address  state-of-the-art  methods  for  modeling  consumers’  preferences  and  the  valuation  of  public  goods.  Preference  modeling  underlies  modern  microeconomics,  and  it  is  difficult to overemphasize its importance. The theory of economics has developed several methods that estimate the value of  non-market  goods. 

The  most  flexible  method  and  currently,  the  most  widely  applied,  is  the  contingent  valuation method, which is combined with elicitation questions in the form of a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE).Our  research  project  addresses  fundamental  methodological  problems  that  are  related  to  eliciting  consumer  preferences,  i.e.,  the  incentive  compatibility  of  survey  instruments  that  are  used  in  stated  preference  DCE  studies. Incentive compatibility allows for obtaining information about true preferences, since it assures that giving a true answer is respondent’s best strategy. The project is an answer to the recently proposed theory on incentive compatibility in DCEs, which suggests that the following conditions should be fulfilled in order to elicit true preferences: (1) the survey must be seen as consequential, i.e. respondents must be convinced about real consequences following from the survey results and (2) according to the Gibbard-Satterthwaite’s theorem, message space should not be larger than binary, which means one choice situation consisting of exactly two alternatives per respondent. 

The aim of our project is to empirically verify the importance of the conditions for incentive compatibility, proposed in the theoretical literature. The verification will be based on experimental field studies, which will be  conducted  in  typical conditions of application of contingent  valuation  methods. 

In  particular,  the  project  addresses the following research questions: (1) if incentive compatibility is indeed necessary (and sufficient) for respondents’ truthful preference elicitation, (2) which of the conditions (consequentiality, the number of choice tasks, the number of choice alternatives) plays a major role in ensuring truthful preference revelation(3) how to econometrically account for the extent to which these conditions are satisfied, to potentially correct biased estimates, and (4) based on Monte Carlo simulations – establishing the extent of the bias and the change of the statistical efficiency resulting from violating each condition


NGI FORWARD

825652 - HORYZONT 2020

Kierownik: Śledziewska Katarzyna, Opiekun: Iryna Shuvaieva
Początek: 2019-01-01, Koniec: 2021-12-31
Wartość projektu: 397 500,00 PLN

NGI FORWARD

825652 - HORYZONT 2020

NGI Forward is tasked with helping the European Commission set out a strategy, as well as a policy and research agenda for the years ahead.

To build an internet that is more democratic, inclusive and resilient, we need to not just create an ambitious vision for the future, but also identify the concrete technologies and solutions we need to get us there. To do this, NGI Forward’s work focuses on four key areas of activity, which together will form the “engine” of the project: the identification of key topics, consultation, policy and research, and stakeholder engagement.

READ MORE: https://research.ngi.eu/


Wyświetleń 51 do 60 (155 Razem)