Projekty badawcze





Wyświetleń 41 do 50 (155 Razem)

A dynamic approach to the labour market in Poland

UMO-2018/30/E/HS4/00007 - SONATA BIS

Początek: 2019-09-16, Koniec: 2022-09-15
Wartość projektu: 467 740,00 PLN

A dynamic approach to the labour market in Poland

UMO-2018/30/E/HS4/00007 - SONATA BIS

The ‘flow approach’ to the labour market was introduced by Blanchard and Diamond (1992).

This simple model consists of two dynamic equations for unemployment and vacancies. The model works by matching a function  that  links  unemployed persons to  vacancies. It  describes  the  steady-state  equilibrium  path  and resulting  wages.  The  simple  model  has  been  extended  by  several  authors  (e.g.  Mortensen  and  Pissarides 1994, Fujita and Ramey 2007, Shimer 2012); however, it has a strong limitation asit assumes apopulation thatdoes not evolve with time.Our goal is to tackle the dynamics of the labour market from different starting points. ‘Flows’ are observed at numerous  instances  in  everyday  life;  for  example,  one  can  consider  water  or  other  fluids  flowing  through pipes,  electricity  flowing  through  electric  wires  or  other conductors,or the  air flowing  around a  wing. 

The common  element  in  all  these  examples  is  that  they  can  be  described  using  the  Navier-Stokes  equations (Batchelor,1967). Here,we are going to adapt those equations to describe the flow of people between labour market  states.  This  flexible  framework  will  allow  us  to  solve  two  known  problems  related  to  the  currently used simple models: the stable population size and stable flow rates.

Moving  to  research  questions,  first,  we  would  like  to  provide  a  more  precise  model  describing  the  labour market phenomena. This would establish the theoretical part of our research proposal. Second, our intention is  to  look  for  determinants  of  particular  flows.  The  most  interesting  ones  are  those  related  to  inactivity, particularly  in  the  context  of  the  Polish  labour  market.  We  will  seek  for  factors  that  encourage  people  to move from inactivity to labour activity and those that discourage them from active participation in the labour market and hence cause movement from employment or unemployment to inactivity


Economic effects of Brexit-induced changes in international trade

UMO-2018/31/B/HS4/01855 - OPUS

Kierownik: Hagemejer Jan, Opiekun: Kaźmierczak Ewa
Początek: 2019-09-02, Koniec: 2022-09-01
Wartość projektu: 307 360,00 PLN

Economic effects of Brexit-induced changes in international trade

UMO-2018/31/B/HS4/01855 - OPUS

The project is aimed at the assessment of the economic implications of changes in international trade resulting from the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Brexit).
We will focus on the effects for Poland, but also provide selected results for other New Member States, the UK and the rest of the European Union.
We will focus on the following hypotheses:
1. Brexit will lead to an increase of both tariff and non -tariff barriers in EU - UK bilateral trade.
2. The linkages between the UK and Poland are strong. Breaking of trade linkages will have a non-negligible impact on GDP and welfare of Poland.
3. The bulk of the effects of Brexit will be concentrated in sectors where Poland has the strongest direct economic linkages with the UK, most notably the food sector.


Reasons and effects of educational and qualification mismatches of graduates in the labor market in Poland

UMO-2018/31/B/HS4/02409 - OPUS

Początek: 2019-07-17, Koniec: 2022-07-16
Wartość projektu: 329 000,00 PLN

Reasons and effects of educational and qualification mismatches of graduates in the labor market in Poland

UMO-2018/31/B/HS4/02409 - OPUS

Educational mismatch is defined as the difference between the education level (vertical mismatch) or education field (horizontal mismatch) that is currently required by employers to perform given occupation and the one actually possessed by an employee. Skill mismatch is on the other hand defined as having different skills (higher or lower) than actually required by current occupation.
These kinds of mismatches are the sign of sub-optimal allocation of human resources and can be a source of serious wage penalties which significantly diminish returns to education.
The main research objective of the project is to calculate the extent of educational and skill mismatch for graduates in
Polish economy. Five aspects of the topic will be of particular interest. First –the incidence of mismatch across different education levels, study fields, and occupations. It is expected that the incidence of educational mismatch increases with the level of education, but decreases with
age and labour market experience. Mismatch incidence is expected to be differentiated over occupations. In particular the hypothesis to be verified is that the overeducation concentrates in the occupations grouped in the middle of occupation classification.
Second – the links between the educational process and mismatch incidence. Hypothesis to be verified here is if more practically oriented programmes lead to less skill mismatch on the labour market.
Third – the wage effects of educational and skill mismatches. The research question addressed here refers to the major source of wage penalties: horizontal and vertical educational mismatch versus overskilling or underskilling . The hypothesis to be tested here is that for particular levels of education, skill mismatch is the major source of wage penalty.
Fourth –the issue of mismatch persistence. The objective here is to quantify the duration of jobs to which employees are not well matched in order to verify if educational and skill mismatch are a temporary or permanent phenomenon.
The important question to be answered here is if the mismatched jobs are stepping stones to future professional careers or traps limiting further development with quickly depreciating human capital.
Fifth – a study of educational and skill mismatch in terms of individual preferences. Research objective here involves valuation of a mismatch in terms of job search duration.


Between-group cooperation and conflict in contest games

UMO-2018/31/N/HS4/01215 - PRELUDIUM

Kierownik: Sylwestrzak Marta Ewa, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2019-07-11, Koniec: 2022-07-10
Wartość projektu: 128 160,00 PLN

Between-group cooperation and conflict in contest games

UMO-2018/31/N/HS4/01215 - PRELUDIUM

Recently, there  has been an increasing interest in between-group competition enhancing cooperation within groups.Between-group cooperation has achieved less attention. In this project, I would like examine: (1) under which conditions group will engage in between-group cooperation compared to conflict, and (2) how different voting mechanisms affect groups’ incentives to engage in between-group cooperation andconflict. To achieve these goals, I will build on Abbink et al.(2010) experiment of the contest game. According to this experiment, participants compete to win a contest and receive an exogenousprize (Tullock, 1980).In this project, I will extend the previous experiment in three ways: I will examine groups’ incentives to engage  in  cooperation  over  the  exogenous  prize  with  another  group  instead  of  conflict.  Here,  each  group members will receive a fixed endowment. They will be asked to investtokens in between-group cooperation,   -just  as  in  the  contest  game.

On  the  contrary  to  the  latter,  the  prize  will  be  shared  between  two  groups  in proportion to total investments made by two teams.

In particular, the shareof the prize will be determined by the  sum  of  tokensinvested by  group  membersin  between-group  cooperationdivided  by the  total  sum  of investments  made by both  groups.This  design  ensures  that in cooperationand competitiontreatments,  the expected payoffsin the equilibriumare the same, andthus we should observe similar levels of tokens invested in cooperation andcontest.

Second, I will allow group members to choose whether to engage in conflict or cooperation  with  another  group  in  the cooperation  vs  competitiontreatment.Finally,  I  will examine  how different  mechanisms  of  decision-making within  groups affect  behavior  of  in-group  members  towards outsiders. I will consider: “leading by example”,leadership with group member’s signaling,majority voting and randomly dictator rule. 


Plans vs. actions -- a theoretical and empirical analysis of outmigration andreturn migration intentions and behavior

UMO-2018/31/D/HS4/01523 - SONATA

Kierownik: Janicka Anna, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2019-07-09, Koniec: 2022-07-08
Wartość projektu: 270 700,00 PLN

Plans vs. actions -- a theoretical and empirical analysis of outmigration andreturn migration intentions and behavior

UMO-2018/31/D/HS4/01523 - SONATA

The  objective  of  the  study  is  to  broaden  the  knowledge  of  the  relationships  between  migration intentions  and  migration  behavior. 

To  this  end,  an  analytical  framework  of  a  decision  model  which formalizes the effect of the type of migration decision to be made (in particular – outmigration and return migration)  will  be  proposed,  bridging  the  theory  of planned  behavior  with  random  utility  maximization theory. An  additional  goal  is  to  incorporate  novel research  methods  (laboratory  experiment)  and techniques  (Bayesian  estimation,  simulations),  which have  been  applied  successfully  in  decision-making fields  other  than  migration  studies,  to  help  choose the  most  appropriate  framework  for  the  analysis  of migration behavior. The use of an experimental approach will also allow to address another objective – to choose the most appropriate (in terms of accuracy of predicting actual behavior) phrasing for intentions to migrate. 

It is planned to verify three research hypotheses: 1.The  mechanisms  underlying  outmigration  and  return  migration  intentions,  as  well  as  the mechanisms governing the transition from migration intentions to behavior for these two types of mobility,  are  different.  In  particular,  the  chance  that  an  emigrant  fulfills  his/her  intentions  of returning  is  different  than  the  chance  that  a  potential  emigrant  realizes  his/her  intentions  to emigrate, ceteris paribus. 2.The phrasing of the migration intention question determines, to a large extent, the usefulness of the obtained declaration in modeling behavior based on intentions. 3.A  mixed-methods  approach  combining  the  theory  of  planned  behavior  and  random  utility maximization theory fares better in describing the relationship between migration intentions and decisions than either of the theories on its own. 


Valuation of social health benefits from the air pollution and smog reduction in Polish cities. The analysis of environmental justice, pro-environmental behaviour and information impact on heterogeneity of preferences in the valuation

UMO-2017/27/B/HS4/00611 - OPUS

Kierownik: Bartczak Anna, Opiekun: Cichocka Agnieszka
Początek: 2018-06-20, Koniec: 2022-06-19
Wartość projektu: 426 580,00 PLN

Valuation of social health benefits from the air pollution and smog reduction in Polish cities. The analysis of environmental justice, pro-environmental behaviour and information impact on heterogeneity of preferences in the valuation

UMO-2017/27/B/HS4/00611 - OPUS

Air pollution has become a growing concern in the past few years, with an increasing number of acute air pollution episodes in many cities worldwide. The United Nations has identified air pollution as a global health priority in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Many countries, including Poland, suffer from air pollution and smog experiencing significant damages to both human health and economy. According to the World Health Organization air pollution is the biggest environmental risk to health as it is said to be responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year and numerous health problems. In terms of poor air quality, Poland is ranked second in the European Union just after Bulgaria. The problem of air pollution began to be more noticed in a public discussion with more and more frequent cases of smog appearance -mainly in cities. In order to develop effective interventions and policies for tackling air pollution, decision makers have to be informed about full social cost of air pollution. However, negative effects on health caused by the exposure to air pollution are not directly reflected in market prices.

Economics has developed methods to assess the value of nonmarket goods as the air pollution quality in monetary terms. Thus, especially stated preferences have been increasingly used for such valuations because of the possibility to obtain detailed information on individuals' preferences, as well as to investigate the social acceptance of proposed policy changes. In this project we would like to value in monetary terms the health benefits from reductions in air pollution and smog in different Polish cities.

We are interested whether, and if yes, to what extent aspects of environmental justice, pro-environmental behaviour and information influence the valuation of the air pollution and smog reduction in the health context. Smog is more dangerous to human health than “usual” low-level emissions and some of its’ effects are immediately noticeable, therefore this valuation may differ from a standard air pollution valuation. Smog is a type of air pollution. It arises out of primary pollutants and products of their photochemical and chemical transformations occurring under temperature inversion during windless weather. Photochemical smog is formed during strong sunlight. Sour smog arises in moist air strongly polluted by acid gases and occurs mainly in regions where houses are heated by burning coal and other solid fuels. Smog in Polish cities occurs mainly during the winter when air quality standards in Poland are repeatedly exceeded. The main reason for this is the so-called low-stack emission, i.e. emission from chimneys with a height lower than 40m and road transport emissions. Poland's hitherto activities concerning air quality are focused mainly on mitigation of negative effects, rather than on the air pollution reduction.

As far as we know, the proposed study is going to be the first nonmarket valuation study on smog reduction in European countries. Additionally, probably as the first we are going to analyse the impact of proenvironmental behaviour and environmental justice on air-pollution valuation.

This is also going to be the first valuation study where the social benefits from reduced air pollution and smog will be implemented jointly in the same study, and where the smog reduction will be presented to respondents as an uncertain outcome – taking into account the weather forecasts predictions. The methodological novelty of this project lies in the way we combine a Factorial Survey Experiment and a Discrete Choice Experiment and in the way we are planning to implement different information sets in the valuation survey.


Characteristics of new business models and their impact on traditional markets: the case of Airbnb

UMO-2017/27/N/HS4/00951 - PRELUDIUM

Początek: 2018-06-20, Koniec: 2022-06-19
Wartość projektu: 104 570,00 PLN

Characteristics of new business models and their impact on traditional markets: the case of Airbnb

UMO-2017/27/N/HS4/00951 - PRELUDIUM

The aim of the research project is to identify and analyse local differences in the development and functioning of Airbnb networks in comparison to the traditional hotel industry. The analysis focuses on the characteristics of Airbnb networks and traditional hotels in selected capital cities of the European Union with intensive tourism. The research proposal is motivated by the assumption that the increasing importance of Airbnb in tourism services has a significant impact on the sustainable development of cities and on the usage of housing assets. Consumption habits and the provision of services are undergoing significant changes in the recent years. The development of information and communication technology (ICT) enabled the emergence of online platforms. Due to the wide adoption of smart devices and the expansion of 4G networks, the usage ofplatforms in services provision strongly increased. As transaction costs are significantly reduced by online platforms, almost anyone can provide services outside the formal services sector. Peer-to-peer services (consumer-to-consumer services) provided via platforms gained significant market shares and seem to be substitutes for services provided by traditional firms. As a result, online platforms changed the functioning of markets both at the local and global level. The research proposal is examining the changes in the hotel services.

The empirical analysis will be based on advanced data-science tools, implemented for the construction of the data base, data visualisation and statistical analysis. The project is based on the analysis of big data, obtained from websites with the usage of web-scraping techniques. Web-scraping is an innovative method of collecting unstructured data from websites with the usage of a web-crawler. Various sources of data will be used for the analysis: Airbnb.com, Booking.com (popular platform for traditional accommodation providers) and Tripadvisor.com (platform collecting tourist attractions). The analysed platforms are leading in their services and they are recognisable across Europe. To verify the research hypotheses, the author will employ various statistical methods, including Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and hedonic regression. For data visualisation, among other techniques Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) will be used. The analysis will include EU capital cities with intensive tourism. In order to involve all major geographical areas of the EU (touristic Iberian Peninsula, Central-Europe, Visegrad countries, Scandinavia, Balkans etc), the analysed cities will be selected from every region. The minimum number of analysed cities will be 10.

Discipline-ContributionThe proposed research project aims to contribute to the literature with the following: 1. Compare the spatial distribution of Airbnb and traditional accommodation providers; 2. Determine whether the services provided via Airbnb are complementary for the traditional hotel industry, and reveal the differences between them; 3. Analyse the impact of Airbnb on the sustainable development of cities and tourism; 4. Present the sharing economy’s level of development across the European Union.


Efektywność ratunkowej nauki zdalnej w szkołach średnich w okresie pandemii Covid-19

BPN/GIN/2021/1/00002/U/00001 - NAWA

Kierownik: Liwiński Jacek, Opiekun: Kaźmierczak Ewa
Początek: 2021-06-01, Koniec: 2022-06-01
Wartość projektu: 293 370,00 PLN

Efektywność ratunkowej nauki zdalnej w szkołach średnich w okresie pandemii Covid-19

BPN/GIN/2021/1/00002/U/00001 - NAWA

Międzynarodowy projekt naukowo-badawczy pt. „Efektywność nauki zdalnej w szkołach średnich w okresie pandemii COVID-19” jest realizowany wspólnie przez Uniwersytet Warszawski oraz Uniwersytet Campania Luigi Vanvitelli z Włoch. Jest on finansowany przez Narodową Agencję Wymiany Akademickiej (NAWA) w ramach konkursu „Granty interwencyjne”.

Celem naukowym projektu jest zbadanie, jakie sposoby organizacji nauki zdalnej w szkołach oraz jakie metody i narzędzia stosowane przez nauczycieli były najbardziej efektywne. Chcemy też dowiedzieć się, jakie grupy uczniów zyskały, a jakie straciły na edukacji zdalnej. Wierzymy, że wnioski z badania okażą się nie tylko interesujące, ale również zostaną wykorzystane w praktyce po zakończeniu pandemii. Przykładowo, chcemy zbadać, jak poradziła sobie w trakcie nauki zdalnej młodzież objęta nauczaniem indywidualnym i czy uzasadnione byłoby utrzymanie tej formy nauczania w odniesieniu do tej grupy również po pandemii.

Projekt jest realizowany równolegle w szkołach średnich w Polsce i we Włoszech. 


Regionalization of national input-output tables based on non-survey methods

UMO-2017/26/M/HS4/00732 - HARMONIA

Początek: 2018-04-17, Koniec: 2022-04-16
Wartość projektu: 242 200,00 PLN

Regionalization of national input-output tables based on non-survey methods

UMO-2017/26/M/HS4/00732 - HARMONIA

The main goal of the project is to apply for the first time entropy econometrics into regionalization of national IO tables. Also, we want to compare the outcome of three different non-survey regionalization methods: location quotient based, RAS and entropy econometrics. Finally, we want to compute regional IO tables for Poland based on the regionalization methodology that proves to be the most accurate one. Proposed project should significantly improve the knowledge concerning the application of different regionalization methods. In this sense we will take a part in the methodological discussion in the field of the regional (sub-national/interregional) input-output analyses that has been observed in recent years (in particular in Regional Studies and Economic Systems Research journals). From the point of view of Polish researchers and policy makers much more important will be computation of regional input-output tables for Poland. There could be used to verify the accuracy of the tables compiled recently by Zawalińska (project DEC2012/07/B/HS4/03251) and applied in many future studies. The main reason behind the choice of the research topic is the lack of the studies that apply entropy econometrics in regionalization of national input-output tables. Also, there hardly exist studies comparing the outcomes of different non-survey methods. As a result there exists a gap in the literature that can be, for the first time, at least partially filled due to the completion of proposed project.


Development of hybrid models in context of valuation of non-market goods

UMO-2016/21/N/HS4/02094 - PRELUDIUM

Początek: 2017-03-08, Koniec: 2022-03-07
Wartość projektu: 132 200,00 PLN

Development of hybrid models in context of valuation of non-market goods

UMO-2016/21/N/HS4/02094 - PRELUDIUM

Non-market goods valuation is a topic of major interest in many branches of economics such as environmental, cultural or transportation. It provides necessary information about distribution of benefits from given public good, which allows for its more efficient allocation. In order to value some non-market good researcher must choose one of the preference elicitation method and apply proper econometric models to data. One of the main objectives of such process is finding factors, which influence individual preferences. Nowadays, there is a growing realization in relevant literature that “soft information” variables such as perceived attributes of a public good (e.g. perceived cleanness of the lake), attitudes, knowledge, experience or some psychological factors are of major importance. As suggested by behavioral sciences these factors may have a significant impact on preference formation, which seems to be acknowledged by many empirical studies. Main problem with such variables is that they are not straightforward to measure and therefore not easy to include in the statistical model. In his Noble lecture, Daniel Kahnemann highlighted that there is still the gap between cognitive and decision-making models with an in-depth understanding agent behavior. Hybrid choice models have a prospect to fill this gap. It is a very flexible class of models allowing for incorporation of “soft information” variables directly into choice model by applying so called latent variables framework. There are also other extensions in these models such as e.g. preference heterogeneity. Growing number of their application in empirical research suggest that there is a belief among researchers that they can provide more valuable insight into individuals preferences by allowing for more behavioral approach.

The main objective of this research project is a further development of hybrid models. It is motivated by growing need of usage of more behaviorally adequate models in public goods valuation to provide high quality of estimated welfare measures. Basic research conducted in this project will consist of two parts. First of them will be more theoretical and focused on betted understanding of hybrid models. Although their growing popularity they are frequently treated as a “black box” and relatively little attention is devoted to understanding their results and inference based on them. Due to their complicated structure different effects can be easily confounded if the model is not specified properly. Using Monte Carlo simulation we want to address this issue by investigating how the choice of model specification can influence the obtained results and inference. The second problem, which we will also address by simulation, is the prospect of hybrid models to deal with bias caused by endogeneity of so called indicator variables. Answers to these research questions will provide us with better understanding of hybrid models, especially on correct interpretation of results and influence of “soft information” variables on individuals decisions.

Second part of basic research aims to expand hybrid models to other valuation method such as travel cost method. It is a non-market good valuation method which can be used to estimate benefits from goods usually used for recreational purposes such as forests, seas or lakes. In this method econometric models are used to investigateinfluence of various factors on recreation demand (defined asnumber of visits to given site during given period of time). Hybrid count data models, proposed by us, will allow for analysis of influence of “soft information” variables as well. To date these factors are omitted or included incorrectly. Benefits of ournew approach will be presented by conducting valuation of public good with travel cost method. Obtained results will be compared with traditional, simpler approach in which behavioral factors are omitted.


Wyświetleń 41 do 50 (155 Razem)