Projekty badawcze





Wyświetleń 21 do 30 (155 Razem)

Introducing material flows into macro-evolutionary models: a study of the circular economy

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/00140 - OPUS

Kierownik: Safarzyńska Karolina, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2020-09-30, Koniec: 2023-09-29
Wartość projektu: 958 800,00 PLN

Introducing material flows into macro-evolutionary models: a study of the circular economy

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/00140 - OPUS

We observe an unprecedented growth in demands for raw materials worldwide, driven by the rapid industrialization of emerging economies and high levels of material consumption in developed countries.
During the last century, global materials use increased 8-fold; material intensity measured as the amount of materials required per unit of GDP declined, while materials use per capita doubled. Economists have studied the possibility of de-linking economic activity from energy and material use. Yet, research shows that with the exception of fields of electronics and biotechnology, dematerialization has not been observed.
The EU has promoted measures to reduce the material-dependence of the economy.
One of such measures is the circular economy, which relies on recovering materials from old products and re-using them as inputs for production for as long as possible. A report by McKinsey (2016) suggests that adopting CE on a large scale could generate a net economic gain of €1.8 trillion per year by 2030, reducing material use, while increasing GDP growth and employment. Yet, there are concerns that the circular economy can lead to the rebound effect. The rebound effect describes the phenomena when policy measures, implemented with the aim of encouraging energy savings in production and consumption, can generate results opposite to those expected.
In the context of the circular economy, the rebound effect may arise due to the fact that new goods and products made of recyclable materials are imperfect substitutes, as a result of which the circular economy may create new business opportunities and increase demand; while the recovery of materials from old products is an energy-intensive process, which may offset the energy and material savings from recycling.
These effects have not been yet examined rigorously using a macroeconomic model. This relates to the fact that raw materials and material demands have been largely ignored in the macroeconomic analysis.
Few models that account for flows of selected raw materials rely on the assumptions of the representative agents and equilibrium conditions. As a result, they adopt a linear view on consumption-production, where input use is optimized to maximize the GDP growth. This approach does not capture feedback loops involved in the processes of reuse, repair and recycling of products. The aim of this project is to propose a generic macro-
evolutionary framework for the analysis of material flows in the economy. Formally, we will extend macro- evolutionary models by input-output tables and material flow analysis. Macro-evolutionary models go beyond a single representative agent. They make use an agent-based modelling (ABM) technique, where many heterogeneous, boundedly-rational agents interact with each other. Instead of relying on aggregate equations,
macro-evolutionary models examine macro phenomena emerging from interactions of boundedly rational agents within networks. They have proved capable of explaining core economic phenomena like economic growth, technological change, and business cycles. In this project, we will develop a generic macro-evolutionary model to study material flows in the economy. We will develop a related-set of models to study:
(1) the economy-wide consequences of the circular economy; (2) the evolution of consumption- and production-based emissions; and (3) the impact of demand for raw materials and on the financial market.
The research efforts in this project will allow us to address the questions: under which conditions is the circular economy conducive to the rebound effect? What are the mechanisms underlying the divergence in consumption- and production-based emissions, and under which conditions do they lead to the leakage effect? Can financial stability be undermined by a sudden surge of demand for raw materials during transitions to a low-carbon economy? Can the circular economy counterbalance this effect?


Aggregate and redistributive effects of non-income related cash benefits

UMO-2019/35/D/HS4/02043 - SONATA

Kierownik: Kolasa Aleksandra, Opiekun: Kaźmierczak Ewa
Początek: 2020-09-14, Koniec: 2023-09-13
Wartość projektu: 623 520,00 PLN

Aggregate and redistributive effects of non-income related cash benefits

UMO-2019/35/D/HS4/02043 - SONATA

nequality is a topic of major interest to both academics and policymakers as it has been widely acknowledged that it influences society’s well-being and economic development. The government can significantly affect inequality through redistributive policies.
As these are generally designed to transfer resources from the rich to the poor, their eligibility often depends on an individual’s financial position. However, there also exist extensive social programs targeted at specific social groups, e.g. families or retirees, regardless of their earnings and
wealth.
Assessing the impact of redistributive policies is nontrivial, and the most influential research in this area applied structural general equilibrium models to analyze them. However, this literature almost entirely focuses on tax policies, pensions systems, or unemployment benefits, and the welfare and redistributive effects of non-income related cash benefits have not yet been thoroughly examined within structural models. The main
purpose of this project is, therefore, to fill this research gap.
To this end, I plan to build a general equilibrium life-cycle model that accounts for different forms of heterogeneity between households, with children incorporated in an explicit way. It will contain various stochastic components to reflect uncertainties an individual faces during the lifetime, such as earnings shocks, infertility and mortality risk, and risk of high unexpected medical expenses. The model will be developed in
stages, starting from the “Bewley-Huggett-Aiyagari” benchmark, and in each step introducing an additional layer of heterogeneity or a new source of risk.
As a model economy, I will use Poland, and the model will be carefully calibrated to replicate the key features of this country. In particular, it will match the empirical dispersion of income and wealth, the variance of individual earnings, and the life-cycle income profile. I will also account for the detailed population structure, i.e. the distribution of households depending on age, family composition, the timing of childbearing, the source
of income, etc. For this purpose, the relevant empirical evidence from individual and household level data surveys, such as the Polish Household Budget Survey, the Social Diagnosis, and the Polish Wealth Survey, will be collected or estimated.
Having done this, the model will serve as a tool for evaluating the long-term macroeconomic and welfare implications, as well as the redistributive effects of targeted non-income related cash benefits. More specifically, I will assess the impact of two types of programs, which adopt monthly/yearly cash benefits. The first one will be targeted to families with children and the amount of payment might vary depending on the
number and/or age of children. The second type of programs will be targeted to all pensioners. The payouts will not depend on income, but there might be some additional eligibility criteria, such as age. The analyzed programs will not be only hypothetical, but mimic the already existing policies, particularly child benefit programs adopted in many European countries, including Poland. 


Vengeance, gender and demographical characteristics - research withusage of experimental and behavioral economics methods

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/04048 - PRELUDIUM

Początek: 2020-09-02, Koniec: 2023-09-01
Wartość projektu: 183 523,00 PLN

Vengeance, gender and demographical characteristics - research withusage of experimental and behavioral economics methods

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/04048 - PRELUDIUM

The objective of the  project is to contribute to understanding of negative reciprocity. In general,reciprocity can affect the relationships in groups, by strengthening the norms accepted by environment.However it could be a hard task, for an outside observer, to identify the patterns for this phenomenon on thebasis of observations from e.g. workplaces or any other real-life environments focused on team-work. To overcome this difficulty experimental methods might be used, as they provide an easier way to quantify allobserved decisions.

The project will consist of empirical analysis of the decisions of the participants of the "Ten to One" quiz showand a laboratory experiment which will help to understand how reciprocity might affect delegation of unwantedtasks. The usage of game show data allows for a much larger and more diversified sample than available inthe lab.

The greater heterogeneity of the sample is evident especially in terms of age, occupational status, andeducation. Thanks to its clear rules, decisions made by players are easily observable and quantifiable. Inaddition, the researcher has full knowledge of the information on which these decisions have been based.What's more, the stake for which contestants compete in the trivia game show is much higher than what isachievable in the lab. Because in the case of using this data source, the researcher has no influence on thedesign of the game itself, laboratory experiments in economics are a complementary method, allowing forbroadening the analysis of conditions that could potentially modify the behavior of individuals, which were notobservable during the game show. In addition, confirming the results from the field in a laboratory experimentprovides additional validation of the conclusions.Decisions in “Ten to one” consist of nominations of the participant who will answer the next question. Since thisreduces one’s probability of winning the episode, nomination of a player who has previously nominated thedecision maker can be considered as a case of negative reciprocity or simply: revenge. In addition, the resultsof the behavioral analysis of the participants’ decisions taken in the game show will be supported by alaboratory experiment in order to investigate how the gender composition of a group affects that type ofbehavior. A theoretical model of negative-reciprocity, established as a part of this project, will be then used totest how that phenomenon can influence decisions on allocation of unwanted tasks. For this purpose, alaboratory experiment will be conducted, in which participants will face the problem common in every team-oriented work – how to delegate tasks differing in attractiveness and profitability amongst group members.3. Expected impact of the research project on development of science.In some labor market conditions, the presence of described attitudes might be significant, thus it is useful toknow the relationship between the characteristics of individuals and the probability of negative reciprocity andits link with delegating unwanted tasks.

To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first study of negativereciprocity based on game show data. Time horizon of the sample may also allow for an attempt to identifychanges in the negative reciprocity patterns over the past 25 years, which may be particularly interesting froman interdisciplinary perspective. What is more, although the subject of unwanted tasks was previouslyinvestigated, it was rarely analyzed whether there are any factors which might attract decision-makers to paymore attention to the optimal task allocation. Therefore, the value added of this project is the attempt to fill thisgap in state of the art.

The knowledge on how to improve the effectiveness of allocation of unwanted tasks(expressed as overall performance reached by a team in which tasks were varying from attractive to unwantedones) might also improve the decisions in the area of managing teams at workplace. The project, due to itsinnovative potential, could be presented at foreign academic conferences and international conferencesorganized in Poland. Potential places to publish the results are good field journals


Government-subsidized old-age saving instruments with voluntaryparticipation: effective or not. Reconciling the conflicting empirical data onthe crowd-out effect

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/03286 - OPUS

Kierownik: Rutkowski Artur, Opiekun: Cedro Monika
Początek: 2020-07-27, Koniec: 2023-07-26
Wartość projektu: 98 014,00 PLN

Government-subsidized old-age saving instruments with voluntaryparticipation: effective or not. Reconciling the conflicting empirical data onthe crowd-out effect

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/03286 - OPUS

The nature of saving for old age is elusive to economists because it may take many forms. A household mayaccumulate assets which they plan to consume when old and unable to work in the form of real estate, whichis also durable consumption good. People may invest not only in financial markets, but also considerable effortand assets may be invested into one’s human capital, or into the human capital of one’s children. Hence, thevery nature of old-age saving makes it difficult to draw causal relationships between incentives to save andhousehold saving behavior (for an extended review of those issues see Engen et al., 1994). The primarymotivation to accumulate assets in life-cycle models is to smooth consumption between periods with high andlow income. Overlapping generations models (OLG) allow placing this mechanism in the context of the entireeconomy (see Auerbach et al., 1987). Fully rational homo oeconomicus sets the optimal level of savings basedon his time preference and interest rates. Such consumer will not respond to instruments whose objective is toraise savings, because they have already optimized their lifetime consumption and leisure paths (see Gale andScholz, 1994; Conesa and Garriga, 2008; Kitao, 2014). If the incentives provided in the instrument make itmore advantageous than saving in other forms, households will simply transfer their assets to the instrument(see Poterba et al., 1995; Butler, 2001). Hence, unless the method of implementation generates strong generalequilibrium effects, instruments aiming at raising voluntary savings for the old-age have a neutral effect on boththe whole economy and households’ savings for the old age.Meanwhile, empirical studies investigating the crowd-out effect caused by the introduction of government-subsidized old-age saving instruments with voluntary participation report a significant and very diversifiedimpact of such instruments on total household savings.

Only a few studies indicate the so-called full crowd-out(for example Gale and Scholz, 1994, data from Survey of Consumer Finance and analysis of IRAs in the USA).Relatively high crowd-out is suggested also by Engen and Gale (2000) related to the 401(k) plans in the USA.Other estimates suggest a significantly lower crowd-out. Poterba et al. (1995) evaluate the net effect of  401(k)contributions on personal saving by comparing the financial assets of families who are eligible for 401(k) withthe assets of those who are not eligible and find little evidence that 401(k) contributions substitute for otherforms of personal saving. Venti and Wise (1990) analyze crowd-out in IRAs based on Consumer ExpenditureSurveys data and report it to amount only 4%-5%. Messacar (2018) and Yang (2016) estimate the crowd-outeffect caused by employee pension programs in Canada and Taiwan, respectively, indicating the crowd-out ofaround 50%-60%.The hypotheses are as follows:

1. Introduction of the instruments leads to an increase in pension wealth of incompletely rational households.

2. The instruments introduce positive effects for the whole economy.3. The instruments may affect the economic inequality in the society in both directions decrease it, as well asincrease it.The most important expected theoretical outcome of this project is the analysis of how different types ofincomplete rationality impact the effectiveness of the instruments. An in-depth analysis within the frameworkproposed will make it possible to determine the conditions which the households’ decision-making process hasto fulfil for such instruments to be effective (e.g. increase the amount of accumulated old-age savings).

Also, amechanism will be proposed which is the source of conflicting empirical estimates of the crowd-out effect. Thediscussion regarding the size of the crowd-out effect of the instruments (e.g. 401(k) and IRAs) slackenedwithout clear resolution. Most of the studies involved in this discussion were empirical (see Engen et al., 1994;Hubbard and Skinner, 1996; Ayuso et al., 2007; Engen and Gale, 2000; Poterba et al., 1995). Using astructural model of economy allows for full tractability of all the effects of the instruments. Therefore,pinpointing possible sources of conflicting empirical evidence may be possible


From Knowledge Networks to Inter-Regional Innovation Systems in the context of Devolution of Powers to Regions

UMO-2019/35/B/HS5/04010 - OPUS

Kierownik: Weidenfeld Adi, Opiekun: Cichocka Agnieszka
Początek: 2020-07-27, Koniec: 2023-07-26
Wartość projektu: 731 973,00 PLN

From Knowledge Networks to Inter-Regional Innovation Systems in the context of Devolution of Powers to Regions

UMO-2019/35/B/HS5/04010 - OPUS

Regional Knowledge is essential in order to remain competitive and economically resilient in a globalised business environment. Intra and inter-regional knowledge exchange and networks have recently gained attention particularly given the devolution of power to local governments across Europe.

So far, these studies have focused on networks of individual organisations from different regions rather than on knowledge exchange in networks of collective regional groups of organisations. Therefore, this project will examine knowledge exchange in networks of regional groups of organisations from different regions, which are defined as Knowledge Networks of Regions (KNoRs). It will also examine whether and how these networks behave as systems, which will enhance our understanding of how to improve knowledge exchange between regions.

The project’s outcome will feed into a wide range of fields including economics, sociology, governance, regional and organisational studies. It will build on concepts of regional innovation systems, cross border regional innovation systems and relevant studies undertaken by the applicant. It will also suggest the new concept of Inter-Regional Innovation Systems (IRIS), which will provide a novel contribution to the conceptualization of how regions exchange knowledge and pursue joint innovation processes. It will enhance our understanding of interregional knowledge exchange and the ramifications for both economic and societal challenges. To increase the generalisability of the project representation of two different contexts KNoRs in two different geopolitical contexts; where devolution is relatively at its beginning (Poland) and the UK, where devolution is at an advanced stage, will be examined. The impact of devolution of power on the participation and engagement in knowledge networks and systems will be identified. Finally, it will suggest some policy implications for the management and operation of knowledge networks and systems in general and advancing knowledge exchange and innovation among regions in particular.


Birth spacing and women’s labor market outcomes

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/01535 - OPUS

Kierownik: Cukrowska-Torzewska Ewa, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2020-07-22, Koniec: 2023-07-21
Wartość projektu: 308 400,00 PLN

Birth spacing and women’s labor market outcomes

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/01535 - OPUS

The goal of this research project is to analyze time gaps between subsequent childbirths, also referred to as birth spacing, from the point of view of women’s situation in the labor market. We are particularly interested in birth spacing strategies that women take given various institutional designs, especially with regards to family policies such as the length of child related leaves.
Furthermore, we aim to answer the question on the optimal – in terms of women’s labor market and career prospects – birth spacing. We also aim to analyze heterogeneity of women’s birth spacing strategies and its relation to their labor market outcomes and investigate these issues by women’s age at first birth, level of education and working status before the first birth. The proposed research will be based on the empirical analysis of the data distributed through the SHARELIFE survey and will include four main steps. The first step consists of data work, which is a necessary step before any empirical analysis of large scale database. The second step is the analysis of women’s strategies towards birth spacing across selected countries. To this end using SHARELIFE data we will derive time between each subsequent child- for each women in each country. Next, we will pool the data for all countries and using regression models we will estimate how the birth spacing between each specific pair of children differs across countries, while controlling for individual characteristics. We will also run the regressions in which we will directly control for an exact time a woman has spent on a maternity leave to see how this specific family policy affects birth spacing.
These results should be especially interesting because they will be indicative not only of available leaves at the country level but their exact use by mothers.
The third step is the econometric analysis of birth spacing in relation to women’s labor market outcomes.
Given the identification problems that relate to endogeneity of birth spacing and following previous studies, we will use instrumental variable estimation and instrument birth spacing with the variable describing the experience of miscarriage/stillbirth. Apart from that, and as a robustness check, we will propose a second instrument defined as the gender of the first child. We believe that the finding that the gender of the first child affects the timing to the second birth child should be of high interest for demographers and social scientists and therefore we plan to focus on this issue separately and in more detail.
Finally, in the fourth step we will examine the heterogeneity in the birth spacing and its impact on women’s labor market outcomes, and we will re-run the analyses described above conditioning it on women’s socio-economic characteristics, such as the age at first birth, employment status before the first birth, and education level.
In spite of the existence of a large body of literature on fertility, motherhood and women’s labor market outcomes, a thorough analysis of birth spacing strategies in relation to female labor market performance is still missing. The proposed research will add to the existing state of knowledge by providing detailed analysis of women’s birth spacing strategies for a broad range of countries representing different institutional setting. We will also complement existing literature by examining the impact of the time gaps between children on several women’s labor market outcomes, such as employment, earnings and job stability, to find out what is the “optimal” time break between children.
Given the declining fertility rates observed in many developed economics, the result of this project will have important implications not only from the academic point of view but also from policy perspective. Due to the gradual shift towards 2+1 family model observed in many countries, the birth of the second child and subsequent children is perceived as a desirable outcome and the policy actions concentrate now on incentivizing women to have more children (particularly more than one child).
The answer to the question of the “best” time to give second (and subsequent) births will allow for a better policy design aimed at increasing the number of children born to women


Economic determinants and consequences of ‘populism’.

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/01527 - OPUS

Kierownik: Brzeziński Michał, Opiekun: Gloeh Anna
Początek: 2020-06-26, Koniec: 2023-06-25
Wartość projektu: 363 401,00 PLN

Economic determinants and consequences of ‘populism’.

UMO-2019/35/B/HS4/01527 - OPUS

One of the most significant political, social and economic phenomenon in recent time is the rise of ‘populism’.
This project considers two types of ‘populism’. First, macroeconomic populism defined as engaging in high levels of government spending and extensive redistribution without considering the longer run consequences of such policies. Second, political populism which refers to political parties that: a) distinguish between ‘the people’ who are virtuous and the ‘elite’ that should be opposed; b) argue that there is antagonistic relationship between the ‘people’ and the ‘elite’ and that the popular will is to be preferred on the basis of popular sovereignty.
This research project aims at a comprehensive analysis of economic determinants and consequences of the recent rise of populism (understood in either of the two meanings mentioned above). The specific research objectives considered are as follows.
O1) Estimating the short-term macroeconomic impact of populism in Poland This part of the project will focus on quantitative assessment of macroeconomic performance of the populist government in Poland in the period 2016-2020. After obtaining power in 2015, the current government has seriously weakened the liberal democratic institutions.
This was accompanied by implementation of a number of policies that can be considered populist according to the economic definition. These policies include increasing state control over domestic banking system, imposing of new banking and other sectoral taxes, introduction of a very generous, universal monthly child benefit payment and others. The project will investigate to what extent the macroeconomic outcomes in Poland in the post-2015 period result from the policies implemented by PiS. This issue will be studied using the synthetic control method.
O2) The impact of income inequality on populism in Europe The existing literature suggests that the recent rise in populism is due to a mix of economic and cultural factors. One likely determinant of populism is income inequality. The distributive channel has been discussed theoretically, but rarely tested empirically. This part of the project will test the hypothesis that regional inequality in Europe has impact on support for populist parties. As an additional output, the project will deliver a new, high-quality database of regional income inequality measures for the European countries.
O3) Measuring ideological polarization in Central and Eastern Europe
According to the cultural backlash hypothesis of Norris and Inglehart (2019), the major cause of the populist turn has been a reaction of more traditional citizens to the elite-driven secularization and value change from materialistic and conservative values to post-materialistic and liberal ones. This hypothesis presupposes that the distribution of cultural values and ideologies among citizens has changed in recent times and that is has become more unequal or polarized. Within this objective of this research project, we will test the hypothesis that the ideological polarization in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries has increased over time in recent decades. If confirmed, the hypothesis could provide an explanation for the contemporary rise of populism in Hungary, Poland, Czechia and other countries of the region.
O4) The short-term impact of large child benefit on subjective well-being, value orientations and political attitudes in Poland
One of the most prominent elements of the increased government spending package of the PiS government since 2016 was a generous child benefit (called ‘Family 500+” programme). The policy may be considered populist in the sense that it is very expensive (more than 1% of the GDP), while its overall effect (both short- run and long-run) on the economy and society has not been evaluated at all by the government. The research
hypothesis related to this objective of the project posits that the short-term impact of the ‘Family 500+’ benefit has been positive for individual subjective well-being, attitudes to income redistribution, satisfaction with democracy, and attitudes to the ruling political party. By this, the project will study if social transfers designed by populist governments can improve (at least in the short run) out-comes for the transfer recipients, as well as if they can have protective political effect for populists.


Welfare impact of docklessness in shared micromobility solutions,characteristics of trips, and relationship to public transport

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/01976 - PRELUDIUM

Początek: 2020-06-25, Koniec: 2023-06-24
Wartość projektu: 97 440,00 PLN

Welfare impact of docklessness in shared micromobility solutions,characteristics of trips, and relationship to public transport

UMO-2019/35/N/HS4/01976 - PRELUDIUM

As cities become ever more crowded, geometric constraints make last-mile problem of difference betweenplace of exit from means of transportation to a particular destination worse. In smart cities, mobility is beingtransformed by new micro-mobility technologies such as shared bicycles (docked) and e-scooters (dockless),promising to lessen this problem. These two facts have opposite implications welfare-wise for groups of urbandwellers.

Cities are also resource-constrained. Regulators often redistribute welfare from one group to anotherto achieve greater aggregate welfare, when they introduce bus lanes costing car drivers street real estate orprohibit car traffic on some streets entirely, creating a safe environment for pedestrians. Measuring economicimpact of changes, apart from its intrinsic scientific value, enables policymakers to make data-driven decisions.Cities produce massive amounts of data, which has characteristics of "big data": massive volume, highvelocity, considerable variety. Bridging the gap between social sciences and big data is a challenge worthundertaking, as it can deliver solutions for unsolved problems.Transportation economists have been researching time valuations of different parts of journey (in-vehicle,transfer, walking) for public transport in depth, there is extensive knowledge about cars as well. Small, but non-negligible distances commuters experience on bicycles or e-scooters are meanwhile uncertain. Thesedistances may increase or decrease through policy actions.

Bicycles have to be returned to docks in traditionalsharing systems. E-scooters are currently dockless, which is more convenient and increases welfare for users,but also results in "scooters blocking pedestrian space, and broken scooters [being] left abandoned" (Laker,2019)?. They pose a danger to vulnerable groups, such as the visually impaired: even parking near the wall isnot optimal, as the blind use walls to navigate with a stick (Russell, 2019). They could be forced to park only indesignated spaces, equivalent to docks, in order to stop blocking sidewalks and improve city aesthetics.The main research question is: what is the difference in welfare increase for shared micro-mobility usersbetween dockless and docked systems? Docks have particular characteristics: distance required to walk fromdocks to destination, obstacles like traffic lights between docks and destination, and how easy it is to noticedocks. Valuations of characteristics related to walking short distances would be elicited from a discrete choiceexperiment, designed with help of data about e-scooters and shared bicycles destinations, existing bicycleparkings, existing shared bicycle docks, and OpenStreetMap maps. Welfare impact can be measuredcombining these valuations with revealed data from bicycle and e-scooter usage: e-scooters’ parking placesrepresent exact destinations users want to visit.

Constraining them to park in the designated spaces wouldforce them to walk, and the surplus they currently achieve from being allowed to park anywhere can becalculated by adding the walk valuations together. Similarly, shared bicycle users could park closer to theirdestinations, which are unknown, but can be approximated by e-scooters’ destinations close to the dock.

Onceagain, the sum would be computed under appropriate assumptions.Features of e-scooters enable us to conduct previously unattainable research. In contrast to large carsstruggling to find underpriced parking space and public transport stopping only at stations, unregulated e-scooters deliver previously unavailable data about exact destinations. High cost of shared e-scooter tripsreduces the demand for recreational trips with less important time valuation. E-scooters do not require physicaleffort and can be used by more people and in more situations than shared bicycles. The market for sharedmobility is distorted through subsidies and delivers only information about difference between dockless electricscooters and docked bicycles, a vast majority of which is non-electric, and characteristics of docks are neithereasily separable nor controllable.

The topic of e-scooters is in vogue and our results will have strongimplications irrespective on whether the valuations turn out to be statistically significant or not


Welcome to Poland

PPI/WTP/2020/1/00063/U/00001 - NAWA

Początek: 2021-06-01, Koniec: 2023-05-31
Wartość projektu: 399 808,00 PLN

Welcome to Poland

PPI/WTP/2020/1/00063/U/00001 - NAWA

The aim of the project is to build the international potential of the WNE University, especially in terms of improving the effectiveness of recruitment activities carried out with regard to candidates from abroad and creating conditions for establishing direct contacts between WNE research staff and partners from other countries, as well as building the WNE's potential in terms of welcoming and serving foreign students, doctoral students and teaching staff. (website, online marketing, spots, podcast, etc.)

 


Contracts 2.0 Co-design of novel contract models for innovative agri-environmentalclimate measures and valorisation of environmental public goods

818190 - HORYZONT 2020

Początek: 2019-05-01, Koniec: 2023-04-30
Wartość projektu: 1 244 250,00 PLN

Contracts 2.0 Co-design of novel contract models for innovative agri-environmentalclimate measures and valorisation of environmental public goods

818190 - HORYZONT 2020

The overall objective of Contracts2.0 is to develop novel contract-based approaches to incentivise farmers for the increased provision of environmental public goods along with private goods using result-based, collective, land tenure and value chain approaches.
 
Newly developed contract-based approaches are environmentally more effective, economically viable for farmers and support the longevity of contractual arrangements. Moreover, they enlarge farmers’ entrepreneurial freedom and responsibility, and are better adapted to the relevant temporal and spatial scales of specific environmental goods.
 
Contracts2.0 improves existing and designs new contracts in rural areas to realise synergies on the ground.
 
Therefore, Contracts2.0 adapts a Design Thinking process using a six-step iterative process of analytical and creative steps to design and test novel contracts. Further, Contracts2.0 describes novel contract design principles as well as policy guidelines to provide facilitating policy framework. Contracts2.0 activates the experience of 11 existing innovation initiatives and 13 action partners around Europe as a basis for the novel contracts. The initiatives are involved in all steps of the project and i) are pivotal in our analysis of existing initiatives in our 'innovation labs', ii) support experimental testing of novel contract features, and iii) test novel models on the ground. Contracts2.0 provides: An inventory and SWOT analysis of existing result-based, collective, land tenure and value chain approaches; a catalogue of factors facilitating and hindering existing approaches; a set of novel contract design principles; a guideline for policy framework fostering contract-based approaches and the development of appropriate agri-environmental-climate policies; a set of tailor made communication and dissemination materials for target audiences, and new cooperation and innovation networks for ongoing improvement of rural development policies and instruments.
COST 296 250 EUR


Wyświetleń 21 do 30 (155 Razem)